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In 2020, NANSEN published an analysis of how the Istanbul Protocol – the tool for the medical documentation of torture or other inhuman or degrading treatment – works, and how medical certificates prepared in accordance with this Protocol are taken into account in the asylum procedure. 


You can find this updated note here, together with an Addendum on the case law (2020) of the Council for Alien Law Litigation. In this Addendum, the weight given to forensic reports prepared by Constats vzw  in determining a well-founded fear of being persecuted or a real risk of suffering serious harm is examined in the light of relevant ECtHR case law. 




For further information, we also recommend the following publications: